# Lecture 16

The set $$\{wa|\exists x, S'\Rightarrow ^*wax\}$$ ($$w$$: stack, $$a$$:next char) is a regular language

• can be described by a DFA
• use the DFA to make shift/reduced decisions.

## LR parsing

• left-to-right scan
• rightmost derivations

#### Example

$$S'\rightarrow\vdash E\dashv$$
$$E\rightarrow E+T$$
$$E\rightarrow T$$
$$T\rightarrow id$$

### LR(0) machine (simplest)

#### Definition

An item is a production with a dot ($$\cdot$$) somewhere on the RHS. (indicates partially completed rule) 16-01

1. Label and arc with the symbol that follows the dot; advance the dot in the next state.
2. If the dot precedes a non-terminal $$A$$, add all productions with $$A$$ on the LHS to the state, dot in leftmost positions

#### Using the Machine

Start in start state with empty stack.

Shifting

• shift character from input to stack
• follow transition for that character to next state
• if no transition: error or reduce

Reducing

• "reduce states" have only one term and dot is rightmost (complete item)
• reduce by the rule in the state.

reduce: pop RHS off the stack, backtrack size(RHS) states in the DFA, push LHS, follow shift transition for the LHS.

Backtracking the DFA - must remember DFA states. Thus, push DFA states on the stack as well.

$$1$$ $$\epsilon$$ $$\vdash id+id+id\dashv$$ S2 (shift and goto 2)
$$1\vdash 2$$ $$\vdash$$ $$id+id+id\dashv$$ S6 (shift and goto 6)
$$1\vdash 2id6$$ $$\vdash id$$ $$+id+id\dashv$$ R T$$\rightarrow$$id pop 1 symbol 1 state. Now is state 2, Push T, goto 5
$$1\vdash 2T5$$ $$\vdash id$$ $$+id+id\dashv$$ R E$$\rightarrow$$T pop 1 symbol 1 state.
$$1\vdash 2E3$$ $$\vdash id$$ $$+id+id\dashv$$ S7 (shift and goto 7)
$$1\vdash 2E3+7$$ $$\vdash id+$$ $$id+id\dashv$$ S6 (shift and goto 6)
$$1\vdash 2E3+7id6$$ $$\vdash id+id$$ $$+id\dashv$$ R T$$\rightarrow$$id, goto 8
$$1\vdash 2E3+7T8$$ $$\vdash id+id$$ $$+id\dashv$$ R E$$\rightarrow$$E+T, pop 3 symbol 3 states. Now is state 2, Push E, goto 3
$$1\vdash 2E3$$ $$\vdash id+id$$ $$+id\dashv$$ S7 (shift and goto 7)
$$1\vdash 2E3+7$$ $$\vdash id+id+$$ $$id\dashv$$ S6 (shift and goto 6)
$$1\vdash 2E3+7id6$$ $$\vdash id+id+id$$ $$\dashv$$ R T$$\rightarrow$$id, goto 8
$$1\vdash 2E3+7T8$$ $$\vdash id+id+id$$ $$\dashv$$ R E$$\rightarrow$$E+T goto 3
$$1\vdash 2E3$$ $$\vdash id+id+id$$ $$\dashv$$ S4 (shift and goto 4)
$$1\vdash 2E3\dashv 4$$ $$\vdash id+id+id\dashv$$ $$\epsilon$$ Accept

What can go wrong?

What if a state looks like this:

$$A\rightarrow\alpha\cdot c\beta$$
$$B\rightarrow\gamma\cdot$$

Shift $$c$$ or reduce $$B\rightarrow\gamma$$? This is a shift-reduce conflict.

$$A\rightarrow\alpha\cdot$$
$$B\rightarrow\beta\cdot$$

Reduce $$A\rightarrow\alpha$$ or $$B\rightarrow\beta$$? This is a reduce-reduce conflict.

Whenever a complete item $$A\rightarrow\alpha\cdot$$ is not alone in a state, there is a conflict, and the grammar is not LR(0).

E.g. Right-associative

$$S'\rightarrow\vdash E\dashv$$
$$E\rightarrow T+E$$
$$E\rightarrow T$$
$$T\rightarrow id$$ 16-02

E.g. Input starts with $$\vdash id....$$

 _____ shift   _____ shift   _____ reduce  _____
|      ------>||-    ------>||-id  ------>||-T
|_____        |_____        |_____        |_____
1             2             3             4

Should we reduce $$E\rightarrow T$$?

Depends:

• If input is $$\vdash id\dashv$$ then yes.
• If input is $$\vdash id+...$$ then no.

For each $$A\rightarrow\alpha\cdot$$, attach $$Follow(A)$$

$$Follow(E)=\{\vdash\}$$
$$Follow(T)=\{+,\vdash\}$$

$$E\rightarrow T\cdot + E$$
$$E\rightarrow T\cdot$$
becomes
$$E\rightarrow T\cdot + E$$
$$E\rightarrow T\cdot\quad\dashv$$

#### Interpretation:

$$A$$ reduce action $$A\rightarrow\cdot\quad x$$ ($$x=Follow(A)$$) only applies if the next character is in $$x$$.
So $$E\rightarrow T\cdot$$ applies when next character is $$\dashv$$.
$$E\rightarrow T\cdot+E$$ applies when next character is $$+$$.

Conflict resolved

Result is called an SLR(1) parser. (Simple LR with 1 character lookahead.

SLR(1) resolves many, but not all, conflicts.

LR(1) is more powerful than SLR(1), but produces many more states.

## Building a Parse Tree

#### Top-down

 _____
|-|S     S->AyB
|_____

_____
|-|AyB   Keep S
|  \|/
|   S
|_____

Make the new nodes its children.

#### Bottom-up

 _____
||-ab    Reduce A->ab
|_____

_____
|-|A     Keep A
| / \
|a   b
|_____

Attach old nodes as children of the new node.